Early Online

The articles shown below have been posted as Early Online Release articles. These articles have been peer reviewed, copyedited, and reviewed by the authors. Additional changes or corrections may appear in these articles when they are published in a future issue of the “Physical Education of Students". When articles are published in an issue, it will be removed from this page and appear in that issue’s table of contents.


  • The effects of ankle Kinesiotaping on postural control in healthy taekwondo athletes
    Yasemin Bayraktar | Selçuk University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3417-0353
    Nurtekin Erkmen | Selçuk University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5220-887X
    Yagmur Kocaoglu | Selcuk University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6811-4205
    Bayram Sönmez Ünüvar | Karatay University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2095-3645
    Early Online 2021-10-18 | pages: 345 - 352 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0602
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Although Kinesiotape is widely used by athletes, information about its effect is unclear. Its effect on postural control might directly affect an athlete's performance. In this study, it is aimed to find out whether ankle Kinesiotaping in taekwondo athletes affects postural control.
    Material and Methods. Twenty-four healthy university students – taekwondo athletes (12 females, 12 males) were included in the study voluntarily (Age 21.00 ± 1.53 years; height 173.33 ± 7.29 cm; body weight 63.41 ± 9.41 kg). Kinesiotape was carried out to the dominant ankle of the participants. Kinesiotape was applied supportively to peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and tibiofibular ligament. All participants were taken to postural control measurements twice with Kinesiotape (KT) and without KT. Postural control was measured using the Biodex Balance System with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Overall Stability Index (OSI), anterior-posterior sway (AP) and medio-lateral sway (ML) scores were used in the evaluation of postural control. Wilcoxon test was used to compare balance scores under EO condition, and the t-test was used for dependent groups to compare balance scores under EC condition.
    Results. In EO condition, no significant difference was found between OSI, AP, and ML scores of the taekwondo athletes with KT and without KT (p > 0.05). In EC condition, no significant difference was found between OSI, AP, and ML scores of male taekwondo athletes with KT and without KT (p > 0.05). It was found that Kinesiotape in EC condition decreased OSI and AP sway scores in female taekwondo athletes (p < 0.05).
    Conclusions. It was determined that ankle Kinesiotaping of taekwondo athletes did not change the postural balance in EO condition. In EC condition it did not change the postural sway of male taekwondo athletes, but it improved the postural control performances of female taekwondo athletes.
  • The influence of special physical fitness of athletes on the level of technique of playing beach volleyball
    Valeriy Hunchenko | Prydniprovsk State Academy of Physical Culture and Sports | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1986-1068
    Oleksandr Solovey | Prydniprovsk State Academy of Physical Culture and Sports | Dmytro Solovey | Prydniprovsk State Academy of Physical Culture and Sports | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8105-2061
    Yaroslav Malojvan | Prydniprovsk State Academy of Physical Culture and Sports | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6026-5057
    Artem Yakovenko | Prydniprovsk State Academy of Physical Culture and Sports | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0338-8437
    Krzysztof Wnorowski | Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5505-7985
    Early Online 2021-11-18 | pages: 364 - 373 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0605
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Aim is to determine the influence of the components of special physical training on the effectiveness of certain elements of the game technique during the competitive activities of beach volleyball athletes.
    Material and methods. The study involved athletes (n = 20, age - 17-21 years, experience - 8-9 years), who are engaged in beach volleyball (Kherson, Ukraine). Experts (n = 5, work experience - over 20 years) from among the leading volleyball specialists were involved. Training sessions were conducted according to the author’s structure and content of special physical training (preparatory period of the annual cycle). The author's program was to increase the volume of athletic work by 10% (selective classes and integrated work) and 17% (complex classes). The classes used a developed special training device. The device is designed to practice practical game skills. The load at the first stage was 70-80% of the maximum. The load in the second stage was 80-90% of the maximum.
    Results. Significant (p <0.05) development of explosive power, speed and agility was revealed. There is a significant (p <0,05) increase: in the number of jump serve and spike; improving the quality/number of serve and attack; improving the quality of passing and the number of blocks.
    Conclusions. The proposed structure and content of special physical training and exercises on a special simulator have significantly increased the level of development of physical qualities. The athlete training program helped to improve the effectiveness of certain technical actions during competitive activities.
  • Physical and physiological benefits of small sided recreational handball in untrained males: relationship of body fat with aerobic capacity
    Rakesh Tomar | King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3107-0867
    John A. Allen | King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6137-9825
    Early Online 2021-10-15 | pages: 339 - 344 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0601
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Exercise and Recreation play major role in promotion of health and fitness. Recreational exercise or sports can be useful in physically inactive population. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of recreational handball on body fat percent, VO2max, blood pressure and resting heart rate. Another purpose to find relationship between VO2max and body fat percentage.
    Material and Methods. Twenty-four students were randomized into intervention (n=14) and control group (n=10). The intervention group was asked to play recreational handball for 12 weeks. Handball training was held twice a week for 30 minutes duration. The Control group performed their normal routine. Aerobic capacity measured using single-stage treadmill test. Body fat was measured with Omron Body Fat Analyzer. T-test was employed to find a significant difference in the two groups. For the relationship in aerobic capacity and body fat, Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used.
    Results. We found significant difference in body percent (t22 = 2.031, P = 0.054). No significant difference was seen in aerobic capacity (t22 = 1.578, P = 0.129), systolic blood pressure (t22 = -1.637, P = 0.116), diastolic blood pressure (t22 = -1.562, P = 0.133) and resting heart rate (t22 = 1.620, P = 0.120). Significant relationship was established between body percent and aerobic capacity (r= -5.23, n=14, p= 0.055) in the intervention group.
    Conclusions. It can be concluded that recreational handball was useful in eliciting good response with respect to reduction of body fat in intervention group. However, recreation handball sessions were not effective in reducing blood pressure, resting heart and aerobic capacity among untrained males. A significant relationship was observed in VO2max and percent body fat.
  • The acute effect of different massage durations on squat jump, countermovement jump and flexibility performance in muay thai athletes
    Ramazan Bayer | Turgut Özal University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2161-5886
    Özgür Eken | Inonu University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5488-3158
    Early Online 2021-11-05 | pages: 353 - 358 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0603
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Muay thai is a combat sport in which the competitors kick, punch, knee, elbow and growl with their opponents. The strength of the leg muscles can increase the intensity of the kick and its flexibility is a well-known issue for this sport. Determining the most appropriate method for these issues provides important gains to the athletes. One of the methods applied to achieve these gains is acute massage applications. The aim of the study is to evaluate the acute effect of different massage times on squat jump, countermovement jump and flexibility performance.
    Materials and Methods. Twelve healthy male muay thai athletes (age, 19.83± 1.46 years; height, 175.33± 7.91 cm; body mass, 65.16 ±13.36 kg) participated in the study, who exercised three times a week. The study consists of a single group. The study consists of 4 different massage duration protocols. These protocols consist of no massage (NM), five minutes massage (5MMSG), ten minutes massage (10MMSG) and fifteen minutes massage (15MMSG). Counter movement jump, squat jump, sitting and lying flexibility were measured after each massage period, respectively. All protocols were continued on consecutive days.
    Results. There was a significant main effect for flexibility (F = 10,872 ; p = 0.00), countermovement jump (F = 4.719 p=.008) and squat jump (F = 6.262 p=.002) performance. The best flexibility, countermovement jump and squat jump performance detected immediately after 5MMSG was respectively 35,16 ± 6,33; 37,17 ± 4,18 and next, 36,05 ± 4,68.
    Conclusion. As a result, it is recommended that different massage durations are effective in improving physical performance, and 5MMSG before competition is recommended for athletes and coaches to get more performance.