The acute effects of repeated static apnea on aerobic power

Keywords: Hypoxia- Static, Apnea, Respiratory, Exchange, Ratio, Rate of Perceived, Exertion, Hemoglobin, Hemotocrite

Abstract

Purpose: Apnea exercises cause a rise in hematocrit, erythropoietin, hemoglobin concentration, lung volume and oxygen store in muscle and blood, and a decrease in blood acidosis and oxidative stress. These types of physiological changes that occur in the body result in developments in both time to exhaustion and V02max. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the acute effect of repeated static apneas on aerobic power. Material: Twenty physically active male university students (age:22.80±3.84 year, height:177.40±7.49 cm and weight:68.20±8.72 kg) volunteered to participate in the current study. They were divided as the static apnea and control groups randomly. The static group performed multistage exercise treadmill test to exhaustion (maximal aerobic power) after three maximal apneas with 2-min interval in sitting position. The control group performed only the maximal aerobic power test without apnea. Their maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), gas exchange rate (RER), heart beat rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) values were measured during maximal aerobic test. Their hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) values were measured before and immediately after the apnea for both groups. Results: There were no significant differences found between the control and static apnea groups for Vo2max, HR, Hb and Hct. However, RPE values measured after the static apnea were lower (17.55±0.51) than the control (18.75±0.62). Conclusions: The repeated static apneas immediately prior the maximal aerobic effort cannot increase aerobic power in untrained breath hold participants. However, the lower RPE after static apnea may be used as an ergogenic effect.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 726 | PDF Downloads: 424 |

Author Biography

M. Yıldız, School of Physical Education and Sports, Afyon Kocatepe University
mehmetyildiz@aku.edu.tr; Afyonkarahisar 03200, Turkey

References

Ge RL, Witkowski S, Zhang Y, et al. Determinants of erythropoietin release in response to short-term hypobaric hypoxia. J.Appl.Physiol. 2002; 92(6):2361-2367.

Jelkmann W. Erythropoietin: structure, control of production, and function. Physiol.Rev. 1992; 72(2):449-489.

Knaupp W, Khilnani S, Sherwood J, Scharf S, Steinberg H. Erythropoietin response to acute normobaric hypoxia in humans. J.Appl.Physiol. 1992; 73(3): 837-840.

Du Bois AM, Nelson GC, Ciccone AB, et al. Effect Of Serial Apneas And Facial Immersion On High Intensity Aerobic Performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2014; 46(5S):701.

De Bruijn R, Richardson M, Schagatay E. Increased erythropoietin concentration after repeated apneas in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008; 102:609–13.

Schagatay E, Andersson JP, Nielsen B. Hematological response and diving response during apnea and apnea with face immersion. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007; 101:125–32.

Nygren-Bonnier M, Gullstrand L, Klefbeck B, et al. Effects of glossopharyngeal pistoning for lung insufflation in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007; 39:836–41.

Joulia F, Steinberg JG, Faucher M, et al. Breath-hold training of humans reduces oxidative stress and blood acidosis after static and dynamic apnea. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2003; 137:19–27.

Joulia F, Steinberg JG, Wolff F, et al. Reduced oxidative stress and blood lactic acidosis in trained breath-hold human divers. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2002; 133:121–30.

Lemaître F, Joulia F, Chollet D. Apnea: A new training method in sport? Medical hypotheses. 2010; 74(3): 413-415.

Richardson M, De Bruijn R, Holmberg HC, Bjorklund G, Haughey H, Schagatay E. Increase of hemoglobin concentration after maximal apneas in divers, skiers, and untrained humans. Can.J.Appl.Physiol. 2005; 30(3):276-281.

Richardson MX, De Bruijn R, Schagatay E. Hypoxia augments apnea induced increase in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol. 2009; 105(1):63-68.

Schagatay E, Haughey H, Reimers J. Speed of spleen volume changes evoked by serial apneas. Eur JAppl Physiol. 2005; 93:447-452.

Bakovic D, Eterovic D, Saratlija-Novakovic Z, et al. Effect of human splenic contraction on variation in circulating blood cell counts. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005; 32:944–51.

Prommer N, Schmidt W. Loss of CO from the intravascular bed and its impact on the optimised CO-rebreathing method. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol. 2007; 100(4):383-391.

Richardson MX, Lodin A, Reimers J, Schagatay E. Short-term effects of normobaric hypoxia on the human spleen. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol. 2008; 104(2):395-399.

Abbiss CR, Laursen PB Models to explain fatigue during prolonged endurance cycling. Sports Med. 2005; 35:865–898.

Heinicke K, Wolfarth B, Winchenbach P, et al. Blood volume and hemoglobin mass in elite athletes of different disciplines. Int J Sports Med. 2001; 22:504–512.

Marx JJ, Vergouwen PC Packed-cell volume in elite athletes. Lancet. 1998; 352(9126):451.

Kanstrup IL, Ekblom B. Blood volume and hemoglobin concentration as determinants of maximal aerobic power. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1984; 16:256-262.

Brugniaux JV, Schmitt L, Robach P, et al. Eighteen days of ‘‘living high, training low” stimulate erythropoiesis and enhance aerobic performance in elite middle-distance runners. J Appl Physiol. 2006; 100:203–11.

Foster GE, Sheel AW. The human diving response, its function, and its control. Scand.J.Med.Sci.Sports. 2005; 15:(1)3-12.

Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med sci sports exerc, 1982; 14(5):377-381.

Lemaitre F, Polin D, Joulia F, et al. Physiological responses to repeated apneas in underwater hockey players and controls. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2007; 34(6):407.

Andersson JP, Linér MH, Jönsson H. Increased serum levels of the brain damage marker S100B after apnea in trained breath-hold divers: a study including respiratory and cardiovascular observations. J Appl Physiol. 2009; 107(3):809-815.

Sperlich B. Repeated apnea-induced contraction of the spleen in cyclists does not enhance performance in a subsequent time-trial. European journal of applied physiology, 2015; 115(1): 205-212.

Hurford WE, Hong SK, Park YS, et al. Splenic contraction during breath-hold diving in the Korean ama. J Appl Physiol. 1990; 69:932–936.

Andersson J, Schagatay E. Arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea in humans. Undersea Hyperb Med. 1998; 25(1), 21.

Espersen K, Frandsen H, Lorentzen T, Kanstrup IL, Christensen NJ. The human spleen as an erythrocyte reservoir in diving-related interventions. J Appl Physiol. 2002; 92(5):2071-2079.

Baković D, Valic Z, Eterović et al. Spleen volume and blood flow response to repeated breath-hold apneas. J Appl Physiol. 2003; 95(4):1460-1466.

Lemaitre F, Seifert L, Polin D, et al. Apnea training effects on swimming coordination. J Strength Cond Res/Natl Strength Cond Assoc. 2009; 23:1909–1914.

American College of Sports Medicine ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.

Scherr J, Wolfarth B, Christle JW, Pressler A, Wagenpfeil S, Halle M. Associations between Borg’s rating of perceived exertion and physiological measures of exercise intensity. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol. 2013; 113(1):147-155.

Guaraldi P, Serra M, Barletta G, et al. Cardiovascular changes during maximal breath-holding in elite divers. ClinAuton Res. 2009; 19:363-366.

Palada I, Eterovic D, Obad A, et al. Spleen and cardiovascular function during short apneas in divers. JAppl Physiol. 2007; 103:1958-1963.

Rodriguez FA, Ventura JL, Casas M, et al. Erythropoietin acute reaction and haematological adaptations to short, intermittent hypobaric hypoxia. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol. 2000; 82(3):170-177.

Powers CK, Howley ET. Exercise Physiology (Theory and application to fitness and performance). USA: McGraw-Hill International edition; 2011.

Hoffman J. Physiological aspects of sport training and performance. Human Kinetics; 2014.
Published
2018-08-28
How to Cite
1.
Yıldız M. The acute effects of repeated static apnea on aerobic power. Physical education of students. 2018;22(4):217-20. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2018.0407
Section
Articles